To understand the meaning of clinical psychology it is important that we first establish the etymological origin of the two words that shape the term. Thus, the first word, psychology, emanates from the Greek where we can appreciate that it is made up of the union of two clearly defined parts: psyche, which is synonymous with "soul", and lodge, which can be translated as "study of".
On the other hand, the second word, clinical, also comes from the Greek. Specifically, his background is in the term kline which is equivalent to "bed."
The clinical psychology It is responsible for research, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of issues affecting the mental health . It is a branch of the psychology that meets the conditions that can cause discomfort or suffering to people .
The psychotherapy and the psychological counseling They are two of the main practices of this discipline, whose origins date back to 1896 from the hand of Lightner witmer . During the first decades of twentieth century , clinical psychology focused on psychological evaluation; however, from the Second World War , efforts were directed towards the treatment of patients.
It is important to distinguish between clinical psychology and psychiatry , since psychiatrists have legal authorization for the prescription of medications. On the other hand, it should be noted that clinical psychology has four primary theoretical orientations: psychodynamic , the humanist , the cognitive behavioral and the family therapy .
However, it is necessary to continue delving into the matter to be able to determine that currently clinical psychology has many fields of study. Thus, among them we find social psychology, community psychology, clinical neuropsychology, psychoneuroinmulogy or psycho-oncology.
The latter can determine that it is a discipline, halfway between medicine and psychology, which takes as its starting point the discovery of a person's cancer. From that blow, the relationships established between the patient and his environment, treatment, health status or behaviors are analyzed.
All this leads to the establishment that, through this type of psychology, not only the patient must be treated but also his family, that the dignity of the person must be encouraged at all times, that what is its autonomy and also that it is essential to take care of all aspects of the environment because they influence its recovery.
Among the psychological symptoms attended by clinical psychology, are the somatic disorders (which may appear acutely or be present constantly), the psychic disorders (such as the feeling of fear or unfounded worries) and behavioral disorders (motor restlessness, irritability and sleep disturbances, among others).
It is worth mentioning, among somatic disorders, the cardiovascular symptoms (They are the most frequent, such as tachycardia with palpitations), respiratory symptoms (feeling short of breath or choking), gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting) and genitourinary symptoms (such as transient impotence or menstrual cycle disorders).