The Greek term apodeiktikós went to Latin as apodictĭcus, which came to our language as apodictic . The concept is used in the field of philosophy to qualify what proves valid or true demonstrably and unconditionally .
Regarding your etymology , we notice that it is composed of the prefix apo- ("far, out, apart"), from the verb deiknumai (which can be translated as "indicate or show") and the suffix -tico (which in this case provides the meaning of "relative to"). A possible interpretation of this merger of components is that the apodyctic is something that stands out and can be removed from its surroundings, because it is something undeniable.
The notion of apodictic frequently appears in the Aristotelian logic , as is known to the doctrine developed from the works from Aristotle . For this prominent philosopher of the Ancient Greece , a proposition is apodyctic when it is obviously valid or necessarily invalid . So differentiate these expressions from assertive propositions (which are used to assert whether a thing is or is not) and of the problematic propositions (They reflect the possibility that a thing is true).
We can understand the differences between these types of proposition through examples. The statement "Four plus three equals seven" It is apodyctic: it is necessarily valid. It does not tolerate a contradiction since "Four plus three" It will always be "Equal to seven". Within the framework of logic, there is no possibility to discuss the validity of the statement as it carries a necessary truth and is self-evident.
Instead, a phrase like “Everest is taller than Aconcagua” result assertive because it merely states that something "is". A problematic proposition, meanwhile, is “A family can have more members than a town”: indicates one possibility .
Aristotelian logic also includes the concept of dialectical, opposite to that of the apodictic, as well as something reasonable or probable opposes a scientific test. We understand by dialectics to the technique of conversation , and this same meaning has a branch of philosophy that has had a great development in history.
In the beginning, it was a method of argumentation similar to what we call today logic. Throughout the eighteenth century, this word received a new meaning, as it began to be defined as "the theory of the opposites in the concepts or in the things, as well as the identification and the overcoming of the same ". From a more schematic point of view, it is possible to define the dialectic as that speech in which a given tradition or conception is contrasted ( giving rise to a thesis), and the exposition of contradictions and problems (a antithesis).
Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant published in 1781 a work entitled "Critique of pure reason", the most important of his career and with a second edition six years later, in which he gives a clear distinction between assertive, problematic and apodyctic. First, he points out that the modality of a trial does not contribute anything to its content; it is a very particular function of these in which they weigh more the relationship, quality and quantity .
With regard to problematic judgments, Kant defines them as those that do not carry the obligation to affirm or deny. The assertive, meanwhile, are the judgments in which it is considered as real or true Finally there are the apodicts, whose definition coincides with that set forth in the previous paragraphs.
Apocytic, on the other hand, can be a argumentative style that an individual develops when he expresses a judgment as a categorical truth, beyond which it is not necessary to do so.